Components Of Reciprocating Compressor

What Is Reciprocating An Compressor?

  • Typically Seen In Commercial And Industrial Settings, A Reciprocating Compressor Is A Mechanical Device Used To Compress Gases. The Gas Is Compressed By Moving A Piston Back And Forth Within A Cylinder, A Technique Known As "Reciprocating Motion".

Parts Of Reciprocating Compressor:

There Are Several Components That Go Into A Functioning Reciprocating Compressor. The Function Of Each Of These Components In Reciprocating Compressor Is Outlined Below:

  1. Cylinders
  2. Piston And Piston Rods
  3. Crank Shaft
  4. Bearings
  5. Connecting Rods
  6. Valves
  7. Lubrication System

1. Cylinders:

  • The Cylinders Of A Reciprocating Compressor Are A Key Component. Separately From Supporting Structure, Process Industry Cylinders May House Both Discharge And Suction Valve Plates.
  • Steel Is Used To Make Smaller, High - Pressure Cylinders, Where As Cast Iron Is Used For Bigger, Lower - Pressure Ones. Steel Is Preferable For Hydrocarbon Service, However Ductile Iron May Be Utilized In Other Situations.
  • Most Cylinders Include Removable Liners To Provide A Renewing Surface And Reduce Wear. When A Cylinder Is Scored, The Expense Of Rebuilding The Whole Unit May Be Avoided By Removing Its Replaceable Surface. 
  • Cylinders Used In Industrial Settings May Include A Water Jacket Or Other Cooling System To Mitigate The High Temperature Generated By The Compression Cycle.

2. Piston And Piston Rod:

  • The Reciprocating Compressor's Piston Is The Mechanical Component Most Responsible For Its Operation. The Piston Transfers Mechanical Energy From The Crankcase To The Gas In The Cylinder And Is Often Made From Lightweight Materials Like Aluminum Or Aluminum Alloys To Decrease Rod Load And Rattling.
  • Piston Often Have Sliding, Self - Lubricating Seals ( Piston Rings ) To Prevent Leakage. The Decrease In Frictional Force Is Another Way That These Rings Aid In Extending The Life Of Moving Parts And Boosting Productivity.
  • The Reciprocating Crosshead Is Transmitted Into The Piston Through The Piston Rod, Which Is Threaded Into The Piston. Alloy Steel Has Long Been The Material Of Choice For Producing This Part. It Has To Have Its Surface Polished And Toughened Wherever It Will Be Going Through The Cylinder Packing.
  • Premature Wear, Decreased Efficiency, Increased Leakage And Increased Maintenance Costs May All Be Avoided By Sticking Within The Parameters Recommended By The Compressor Manufacturer.

3. CrankShaft:

  • The Crankshaft Of A Reciprocating Compressor Is An Integral Part Of The Machine. It Converts The Rotational Action Of The Compressor's Engine Or Motor Into The Reciprocating Motion Needed To Squeeze Gas Or Air Via Compressor's Piston.
  • The Crankshaft Is A Study Cylinder With Crankpins That Are Offset From One Another. Crankpins Like These Link The Crankshaft To The Connecting Rods, Which In Turn Link The Rods To The Pistons. The Crankpins Offset Design Results In Reciprocating Motion Of The Pistons Inside The Cylinders While The Crankshaft Revolves. 

4. Bearings:

In Reciprocating Compressors, There Are Two Primary Kinds Of Bearings

A). Crankshaft Bearings:

  • The Reciprocating Action Of The Pistons Is Transformed Into Rotational Motion At The Crankshaft, Which Is Supported By A Set Of Bearings. The Crankshaft May Rotate Freely And With Little Resistance Due To The Bearings That Keep It Aligned And In Place. Typically, They Are Built Too Bear Pressure From All Directions.

B). Connecting Rod Bearings:

  • Piston Linear Motion Is Transformed Into Crankshaft rotation Via The Connecting Rod, Which Is Supported By Connecting Rod Bearings. Crankshafts And Connecting Rods Are Supported By Bearings. Due To The Piston's reciprocating Motion, These Bearings Are Exposed To Intense Stresses And Cyclic Loads. They Must Be Robust And Able To Withstand These Varying Stresses.

5. Connecting Rods:

  • The Connecting Rod Is Built To Last Under Hard Use And Repeated Tension. It Has To Last Long And Be Well Made To Keep The Compressor Running Smoothly And Efficiently. The Pressures Exerted During Compression And Expansion Require The Use Of High - Strength Materials, Hence Connecting Rods Are Often Fabricated From Steel Or Alloy.
  •  Piston Reciprocation Inside The Cylinder Is Made Possible By The Tiny End Of The Connecting Rod Being Connected To The Piston's Wrist Pin. When The Piston Moves, Linear Motion Is Transformed Into Rotational Motion When The Big End Of The Rod Is Attached To The Crankshaft's Crankpin
  • Connecting Rods Are Put To Extreme Pressure, Cyclic Loads And Temperature Changes Because Of The Compressor's Reciprocating Motion. Preventing Overheating And Minimizing Friction Between Moving Components Are Crucial To Ensuring Dependability And Lifespan, Respectively.   

6. Valves:

The Gas Actuated, Spring Located Valves Are Among The Most Crucial Components Of A Reciprocating Compressor. The Three Most Common Valve Arrangements Are As Follows:

A). Plate Type Valves - Are Identical To Concentric - Ring Valves, With The Exception That The Two Halves Of The Valve Are Welded Together To From A Single Unit. The Improved Flow Regulation Is Major Benefit Of This Valve Design. Because There Is Just One Component, The Number Of Potential Edges Has Been Drastically Decreased. In Addition Dampening Plates May Be Included Into The Design. The Geometry Involved In Its Use Is Not without Risk, As It May Result In Increased Stress Concentrations. 

B). Poppet Type Valves -  Poppet Valves Have Many Ports Of The Same Size With A Sealing Device In Between Them. The Streamlined Design And Superior Flow Efficiency Are Two Major Benefits. This Valve Is Often Used In The Hydrocarbon Industry Because It Functions Well At Moderate Temperatures.

C). Ring Type Valves The Ring Type Valve, As Its Name Implies, Is Made Up Of A Series Of Concentric Rings. The Low-Stress Benefit Of These Valves Results From Their Reduced Stress Concentration At The Pit. The Only Drawback Is How Difficult It Is To Regulate The Flow Consistently.

7. Lubrication System:  

The Following Are Typical Parts Of A Lubrication System:
  • Lubricant: Compressor Lubricant Is Specially Formulated Oil That Can Resist The Extreme Heat And Pressures Found Within The Compressor.
  • Lubrication Points: Application Of Oil Is Required At Certain Points Inside The Compressor, Known As Lubricant Points. Crankshaft Bearings, Wrist Pins, Cylinder Walls And Piston Rings Are All Examples.
  • Compressor Oil Pump: The Compressor's Oil Pump Pulls Oil From The Reservoir And Pumps It To The Lubricating Points At The Specified Pressure. This Guarantees That All Required Places Always Have Access To Oil.
  • Oil Reservoir: A Reservoir For Oil Is A Container Large Enough To Store A Sufficient Quantity Of Lubricating  Oil. There May Be A Sight Glass Or Other Level Indication In The Oil Reservoir. 
  • Oil Cooler: An Oil Cooler Is Often Added To Bigger Compressors or Those Used In High-Temperature Situations in Order To Keep The Lubricant At An Optimal Temperature.
  • Filters: Oil Filters Are Used To Clean The Lubricant And Ensure That Only Pure Oil Reaches The Working Parts.
  • Pressure Relief Valve: The Safety Device, Known As Pressure Relief Valve, Is Designed To Release Any Pressure That Has Built Up In The Lubricating System.

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