Types Of Gas Turbine And Working Principle

What Is Turbine?

  • A Turbine Is A Machine That Uses The Kinetic Energy Of A Fluid (Such as Water, Steam, Or Gas) To Generate Mechanical Rotation. This Rotational Energy May subsequently Be Put To Use In A Wide Variety Of Applications, Such As Power Generation, Transportation, And Industrial Processes.

What Is a Gas Turbine?

  • A Gas Turbine, Sometimes Called A Combustion Turbine, Is A Kind Of Internal Combustion Engine That Continuously Transfers The Chemical Energy Stored In Fuel Into Mechanical Energy. Electricity Generation, Aviation, Maritime Propulsion, And Industrial Activities All Make Use Of It. The Brayton Cycle Comprises The Compression, Combustion, Expansion, And Exhaust Stages Of A Gas Turbine's Operation.

1. Compression:

  • A Set Of Axial Or Centrifugal Compressors Reduce The Volume Of The Incoming Air. Before Entering The Combustion Chamber, The Air Is Compressed And Heated By The Compressors.
  • For More Effective Energy Release During Combustion, Air Must Be Compressed So That A Greater Concentration Of Molecules Is Accessible For Burning.

2. Combustion:

  • Compressed Air Is Introduced Into The Combustion Chamber At Very High Pressure And Temperature. Combustion Chamber Fuels, Such As Natural Gas, Diesel, Or Aviation Fuel, Are Added To The Mixture.
  • Spark Plugs Or Igniters Set Of Combustible Gas And Air Brew. Combustion Is The End Product, And It Generates A Great Deal Of Heat.

3. Expansion:

  • Combustion Byproducts Are High Temperature, High-Pressure Gases That Are Directed Into The Turbine. The Turbine Has Many Levels, Each Of Which Has Rows Of Blades That Either Spin Or Remain Still.
  • The Turbine Blades Spin As The Hot Gases Go Past Them. The Rotary Motion Results From The Transformation Of Thermal Energy Into Mechanical Energy.
  •  The Energy Collected From The Expanding Gas Drives Both The Turbine And The Compressor Thanks To A Shared Shaft Connecting The Two Machines.

4. Exhaust:

  • Exhaust Gases Leave A Gas Turbine At High Speed And Temperature After Travelling Through The Turbine Stages.
  • Power Plants That Use a Combined Cycle May Route Their Hot Exhaust Gases Via A Heat Recovery Boiler To Produce More Steam And Boost Efficiency.

how does a gas turbine work:

  • The Gas Turbine Employs The Brayton Cycle (Without The Fourth Stage) As Its Thermodynamic Process. The Primary Necessities For the Operation Of A Gas Turbine Are Air And Fuel. Natural Gas Is The Most Common Fuel, While Other Liquid Fuels Are  Occasionally Used. At The Start, Air Is Sucked Into The Turbine From One End And Compressed In The Turbine's Compressor.
  • When Air Is Compressed, It Increases In Temperature And Pressure. After That, The Turbine Receives Fuel Injection. Right Here It Combines With The Pressurized Air And Ignites. Energy In The Form Of Chemicals. A Number Of Variables Affect The Optimal Air-to-Gas Ratio, Including The Specific Heating Value Of Gas, Its Moisture Content, And The Quality Of Air itself. When The Hot Gas From Ignited Mixture Hits The Turbine Blades, It Spins At Very High Speeds (About 3200 RPM). That's How We Go From Chemical Energy To Mechanical Energy. Typically This Is How a Jet Engine Operates.
  • Gas Turbines Are Also Often Employed In Power Plants. They Play A Crucial Role In The Combined Cycle Power Plants, Which Transforms Chemical Energy Into Mechanical Energy Before Finally Transforming It Into Electrical Energy. To Recap, The Hot Compressed Gas Causes The Blades To Spin At Very High Velocities. The Result Is A Rotation Of The Driving Shaft. The Shaft Of The Generator (Electrical Machine) Receives This Rotational Energy Through a Gearbox.
  • A Huge Magnet Is Encased In Copper Wire Coils Inside The Generator. Electricity Is Generated When A Magnet Rotates Rapidly Enough To Generate A Strong Magnetic Field, Which In Turn Allows Electrons To Travel. The Turbine's Waste Heat May Be Utilized To Generate Steam, Which Can Then Power Another Turbine. Therefore Combining The Benefits Of Steam And Gas Turbines Would Result In More Efficient Power Generation.


Gas Turbines Come Variety Of Forms, Each Tailored To Meet A Certain Set Of Needs. Some Typical Varieties Of Gas Turbines Are As Follows:
  1. Industrial Gas Turbine
  2. Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
  3. Open Cycle Gas Turbines
  4. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine
  5. Simple Cycle Gas Turbines

1. Industrial Gas Engine:

  • Power Generating, Including Combined Heat And Power (CHP) Applications, Is The Most Common Usage For Industrial Gas Turbine.
  •  Large Scale Institutions Like Factories, Hospitals, And Data Centers Often Used Them To generate Both Energy And Heat. 

2. Heavy-Duty Gas Engine:

  • In Utility Scale Power Facilities, Heavy Duty Gas Turbines Are Designed For Continuous Power Generation. 
  • They Are Commonly Used In Combined Cycle Power Facilities, In Which The Residual Heat From A Gas Turbine Is Used To Generate Steam That Drives A Steam Turbine To Generate Additional Electricity.

3. Open Cycle Gas Engine:

  • Open Cycle Gas Engines Don't Have A Way To Get Heat Back.
  • They Are Usually Used To Make Power During Times Of High Demand When Starting Up And Shutting Down Quickly Is Important.

4. Combined Cycle Gas Engine:

  • Combined  Cycle Gas Turbines Are Hybrid Power Plants That Include Both A Gas Turbine And A Steam Turbine Into A Single Integrated System.
  • Through The Use Of Waste Heat From The Gas Turbine To Create Steam For Use In Driving A Steam Turbine, These Systems Provide Better Overall Efficiency.

5. Simple Cycle Gas Engine:

  • Gas Turbines That Use A Simple Cycle May Function Autonomously Even In The Absence Of  A Waste Heat Recovery System.
  • Applications Are Often Found For These Systems When The generation Of Electricity Is The Major Output, And Recovery Of Waste Heat Is Not A Significant Factor.


1. Power Generation:

  • In Order To Generate Energy, Gas Turbines Are Often Utilized In Power Plants.
  • The Waste Heat From The Gas Turbine May Be Utilized To Operate A Steam Turbine In Combined-Cycle Power Plants, Which Further Increases The Plant's Output. Since Gas Turbines Can Be Swiftly Ramped Up to Meet Unexpected Surges In Energy Demand, They Find Widespread Application As Peaking Power Sources.

2. Aviation:

  • In Aviation Industry, Gas Turbines Are The Standard Propulsion System. They Provide The Power that Flies Planes, helicopters, And Other Flying Machines. Gas Turbines Are The Power Source For Jet Engines.

3. Marine Propulsion:

  • Gas Turbine Are Used To Propel Navy Vessels, Commercial Ships, And High-Speed Boats. They Are Well-Suited For Use In Maritime Settings Because To Their High Power-To-Weight Ratios And Quick  Acceleration.

4. Industrial Processes:

  • Gas Turbines Are Employed In Many Types Of Industrial Operations That Call For Mechanical Power. They Are Used To power Machinery In The Petrochemical, Industrial, And Mining Sectors, Among Others.

5. Co-Generation (Combined Heat And Power - CHP):

  • Power And Heat May Be Produced Simultaneously By Using A Gas Turbine In A Cogeneration (Combined Heat And Power) Plant. Water And Space Heating, As Well As several Industrial Activities, Benefit From The Byproduct Heat produced By Running A Gas Turbine.  

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